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Gaarawarr's Guide to Greengrass - Year 3

Last Updated: April 8th, 2020, at 8:27pm PDT - Added tips for The Problem Solvers and Wheat from the Chaff for brand new players
Last Updated: April 2nd, 2020, at 3:15pm PDT - Updated Melf's upgrade info; guide complete unless I missed something
Last Updated: April 1st, 2020, at 9:41pm PDT - Updated Melf's Feat info
Last Updated: Initial Post

Event Introduction

The start of spring is traditionally marked by a day of peace and rejoicing, featuring beautiful displays of flowers in celebration of Lathander, God of Spring and The Morninglord. Unfortunately for the town of Triboar on the Sword Coast, their celebrations are interrupted by the arrival of a githyanki raiding party...
Greengrass runs from Wednesday April 1st, 2020, at Noon PST, thru Monday April 13th, 2020, at Noon PST.
You can find the official Greengrass blog post here.

General Event Tips

I highly recommend reading my Guide to Event Planning for basic progression information and ways to maximize your gains/efficiency during Events. There is too much information to put here as this specific Event guide is long enough already.
Don't be afraid to ask questions in the comment section! Also, I stream the game now and welcome any and all questions there as well!
You can find all of my Idle Champions guides here.
Good luck & have fun!
~ Gaar
Note: Event guides are always a work-in-progress and will update over time so check back frequently! I'll note at the top in the revisions area when it's complete.
Important: In Year 3 and beyond, there will be a lot to do to unlock all Champions Gear from an Event if it's your first time doing it. I recommend focusing your time and resources on Gear for no more than 2 Champions as a new player. You can still unlock all 3 Champions though, and should. Your Event tokens are a finite resource, as is your time, and it can be challenging enough to complete two full sets of adventures as a new player, not to mention have time left to do Free Plays for more gear. You also end up with fewer Chests for each Champion if you go for 3+ Champions per Event.
Feel free to ask in the comments about which Champions are recommended in the current iteration of the game so you can make an informed decision on how to spend your time.

Year One Champion - Nrakk, the Githzerai Monk

You can find their Event Guide here.
Feel free to ask questions about them and their formations here in the comments as the linked discussion may be locked to new comments.

Year Two Champion - Aila, the Wild Elf Barbarian

You can find their Event Guide here.
Feel free to ask questions about them and their formations here in the comments as the linked discussion may be locked to new comments.

Year Three Champion - Melf, the Elf FighteWizard

You can read their original Champion Spotlight here.
Slot 12: Swaps with Arkhan, Azaka, Nerys, & Zorbu.
Good with: Elves; everyone
Eligible for Patrons: Mirt, Vajra, & Strahd
Class Race Alignment Gender Age Affiliation Role(s) Overwhelm Point
FighteWizard Elf Neutral Good Male 210 None Support 5
Strength Dexterity Constitution Intelligence Wisdom Charisma
17 15 14 19 11 10
Bio: Born into the royal family of Celene, he assumed the simple name of Melf eschewing a life of comfort as a noble to study the arcane arts and train as a swordsman. He delved in the dungeons of Castle Greyhawk, the Lost Caverns of Tsojcanth and many other harrowing places honing his skills, knowledge and amassing powerful magic items. Melf sees himself as a weapon of weal hurtling toward the heart of the darkest evils in the realm. He is opinionated and has a touch of conceit that he is blissfully ignorant of possessing.
Base Attack Speed: 5 seconds
Basic Attack: Zagyg’s Needle - Melf leaps out and attacks the nearest enemy with his magic spear. If Melf has any Minute Meteors active, he fires one at a random enemy as well.
Ultimate: Melf's Minute Meteors — Melf summons six Minute Meteors that float around him. They are fired when he attacks normally and deal BUD-based damage to all enemies in a small area.

Interesting Abilities

Melf's Adaptive Support Spell: Melf creates a new spell to assist the formation. He customizes it based on the Champions in the formation and where Melf is placed within it. It increases the damage of Champions adjacent to Melf by 100% and that value is augmented based on some other parameters, each of which applies multiplicatively.
  • If there is another Elf (aside from Melf) in the formation, increase the effect by 50%
  • Increase the range by 2 if Melf is not in the front-most or rear-most columns in the formation (affects all champions within 3 slots)
  • Increase the effect by 10% for each unique race in the formation
This ability is buffed by upgrades and equipment (buffs apply to the final calculated value, not the individual increases).
Melf's Augmented Support Spell: Melf augments his Adaptive Support Spell for each Champion it affects.
  • Increase the effect by 50% on the non-dominant gender in the formation (applies to non-binary champions all the time)
  • Increase the effect by 50% for each slot away from Melf a Champion is (multiplicatively)
Melf's Speedy Supplement: Melf provides one of the following effects at random. A new effect is chosen at random every 50 areas (though it could pick the same one multiple times in a row).
  • Increase chance to spawn an additional enemy with each wave by 25%
  • Increase enemy spawn speed by 25%
  • Increase chance of double quest drops by 25%
This ability is buffed by equipment; note if the chance of double quest drops gets above 100% it will then always cause double quest drops with a chance to cause triple quest drops, etc. Likewise with spawning additional enemies with each wave.
Melf's Righteous Determination: Melf knows exactly what evil is. Whenever an enemy spawns it has a 50% chance of being deemed "evil" by Melf. Enemies that are deemed evil take 100% more damage from all Ultimate attacks.


Bonus Adaption: Increases the effect of Melf's Adaptive Support Spell by 100%
Extra Supplements: Increase the effect of Melf's Speedy Supplement by 100%
Absolute Righteousness: Increase the effect of Melf's Righteous Determination by 100%


Slot 1: Spear - Increases the damage of all Champions
Slot 2: Shield - Increases the damage of all Champions
Slot 3: Cloak - Increases the effect of Melf's Melf's Adaptive Support Spell ability
Slot 4: Spellbook - Increases the effect of Melf's Melf's Speedy Supplement ability
Slot 5: Chainmail - Increases the effect of Melf's Melf's Righteous Determination ability
Slot 6: Meteor - Buffs Melf's Ultimate attack Damage


First slot is available at 60 while the second is available at 1140.
Default: Selflessness - Increases the damage of all Champions by 10%
Default: Supportive Ally - Increases the effect of Melf's Melf's Adaptive Support Spell ability by 20%
12,500 Gems: Inspiring Leader - Increases the damage of all Champions by 25%
12,500 Gems: Melf's Medium Meteors - Increases the effect of Melf's Melf's Righteous Determination ability by 40%
Gold Chest: Encouraging Ally - Increases the effect of Melf's Melf's Adaptive Support Spell ability by 40%
Gold Chest: Rushed Plans - Increases the effect of Melf's Melf's Speedy Supplement ability by 40%

Level Upgrades

  • 20 - Melf's Adaptive Support Spell
  • 40 - Increases the damage of Melf by 100%
  • 50 - Increases the damage of all Champions by 200%
  • 60 - Melf's Righteous Determination
  • 65 - Increases the damage of Melf by 100%
  • 70 - Melf's Speedy Supplement
  • 80 - Increases the effect of Melf's Melf's Adaptive Support Spell ability by 200%
  • 85 - Increases the damage of Melf by 100%
  • 90 - Increases the damage of all Champions by 200%
  • 95 - Ultimate
  • 100 - Specialization Choice
  • 110 - Increases the damage of Melf by 100%
  • 120 - Melf's Augmented Support Spell
  • 140 - Increases the effect of Melf's Melf's Adaptive Support Spell ability by 200%
  • 150 - Increases the damage of Melf by 100%
  • 160 - Increases the damage of all Champions by 200%
  • 210 - Increases the damage of Melf by 200%
  • 230 - Increases the effect of Melf's Melf's Adaptive Support Spell ability by 200%
  • 250 - Increases the damage of Melf by 200%
  • 300 - Increases the damage of Melf by 200%
  • 350 - Increases the damage of all Champions by 200%
  • 360 - Increases the damage of Melf by 200%
  • 370 - Increases the effect of Melf's Melf's Adaptive Support Spell ability by 200%
  • 430 - Increases the damage of Melf by 200%
  • 490 - Increases the damage of Melf by 300%
  • 500 - Increases the effect of Melf's Melf's Adaptive Support Spell ability by 200%
  • 550 - Increases the damage of Melf by 300%
  • 560 - Increases the damage of all Champions by 200%
  • 585 - Increases the damage of Melf by 300%
  • 645 - Increases the damage of Melf by 300%
  • 655 - Increases the effect of Melf's Melf's Adaptive Support Spell ability by 200%
  • 725 - Increases the damage of Melf by 300%
  • 765 - Increases the damage of Melf by 300%
  • 775 - Increases the damage of all Champions by 200%
  • 815 - Increases the effect of Melf's Melf's Adaptive Support Spell ability by 200%
  • 825 - Increases the damage of Melf by 300%
  • 920 - Increases the damage of Melf by 300%
  • 935 - Increases the effect of Melf's Melf's Adaptive Support Spell ability by 200%
  • 950 - Increases the damage of all Champions by 200%
  • 1010 - Increases the damage of Melf by 300%
  • 1025 - Increases the damage of all Champions by 100%
  • 1035 - Increases the effect of Melf's Melf's Adaptive Support Spell ability by 200%
Current max upgrade level is 1035

Formation & Mission Information

Once you complete the first mission, three Variants and a Free Play show up. There is a new formation that holds 10 Champions. It has an Event-specific format that I've done my best to re-create below.
Back Column 4th Column 3rd Column 2nd Column Front Column
0 0 0
0 0
New Player Formation & Specializations:
Back Column 4th Column 3rd Column 2nd Column Front Column
Bruenor - Shield Master
Minsc - Humanoids Calliope - College of Lore Nayeli - Oath of Devotion
Asharra - Elves & Dwarves Jarlaxle - Leader of Bregan D'aerthe
Celeste - Life Domain
Hitch - Charismatic
This formation is for the first couple of runs where you're just not going to get enough Gold to get everyone on the field, let alone level people up into their power curves. At this point, Jarlaxle is focusing on being your Primary DPS while everyone else is set up to support him.
The following formation is for once you can get Hitch up into his power curve for damage and he starts outpacing Jarlaxle. You'll have to figure this out during your runs by swapping him and Jarlaxle around every now and then and seeing who's doing better in that Primary DPS slot.
Back Column 4th Column 3rd Column 2nd Column Front Column
Tyril - Moonbeam
Makos - Dark Blessing
Bruenor - Shield Master
Asharra - Humans Calliope - College of Lore Nayeli - Oath of Devotion
Jarlaxle - Leader of Bregan D'aerthe Hitch - Charismatic
Celeste - Life Domain
Minsc - Humanoids
This formation should get you through the Event as a new player. If you have other options or think a different DPS is geared better, try it out and see what happens! Swapping DPS around like this can help you figure out what works best for you with your specific items.
If you need assistance with formations, ask in the Comment section and be sure to list out what extra Champs you have so people know what to work with.
These are the rough Favor values you need to reach to make a Variant (Second through Fourth missions) show as Easy in terms of Difficulty. Keep in mind that this is just a generic rating system and some Variants may be harder than others, even when they show as Easy.
Mission Favor Level (Normal) Favor Level (Scientific Notation)
Second 20,000 ~2e04
Third 15,000,000 ~1.5e07
Fourth 1,000,000,000 ~1e09

Initial Mission: The Endless War (Melf)

Cost: 100 Bouquets
Complete: Level 50
Reward: Melf + whatever Lathander's Favor you earned
Info: No restrictions.

Second Mission: Honorable Discharge

Cost: 1,000 Bouquets
Complete: Level 75
Reward: Gold Melf Chest & whatever Lathander's Favor you earned
Info: Each Champion can only be used to complete 50 areas.
Gaar's Notes: Not gonna lie, this could be rough if you don't have much Favor. New players will need to remove all Champions from the formation and rely on Click Damage only through the first 25 levels and then build a formation on 26 to beat this due to lack of swappable Champions. Make sure it shows as Easy before starting. Even then, maybe wait until The Problem Solvers shows as Easy as well before starting this one.

Third Mission: The Problem Solvers

Cost: 2,500 Bouquets
Complete: Level 125
Reward: Gold Melf Chest & whatever Lathander's Favor you earned
Info: Only Champions with an INT score of 13 or higher can be used.
Gaar's Notes: Well, this is basically your introduction to Strahd as a Patron, only in an Event. Here's a list of viable Champs with those that can be used with a Feat in ():
  • Slot 1: Sisaspia, K'thriss, & Turiel
  • Slot 2: Regis & (Celeste)
  • Slot 3: Artemis
  • Slot 4: Jarlaxle, Paultin, & Stoki
  • Slot 5: Dhadius, Xander, & Qillek
  • Slot 6: Asharra, Krond, & Shandie
  • Slot 7: Jim, Catti-Brie, & Farideh
  • Slot 8: Delina, Vlahnya, Hitch, & (Nrakk)
  • Slot 9: Makos, Morgaen, Birdsong, & (Drizzt)
  • Slot 10: Tyril & (Rosie)
  • Slot 11: Strix, Dragonbait, & Avren
  • Slot 12: Melf, (Zorbu), & (Nerys)
If you don't have a viable formation after this restriction, stock up on Favor before attempting. Get it to Easy, or even better, get Wheat From the Chaff to show as Easy before starting.
As a brand new player who may only have Core Champs and Melf, you may end up at a point where your Champs just aren't doing damage. At that point, try leveling up your Click Damage. Normally I don't recommend this, but I beat it that way on my gearless account with Core/Melf in the formation. So keep it open as an option.

Fourth Mission: Wheat From the Chaff

Cost: 5,000 Bouquets
Complete: Level 175
Reward: Gold Melf Chest & whatever Lathander's Favor you earned
Info: Melf starts out in the formation with Melf's Righteous Determination unlocked. Only enemies that Melf deems evil can be damaged. Blockers, bosses, and boss trash mobs are always deemed evil. All non-evil enemies are invulnerable and can not even be attacked.
Gaar's Notes: Oof. Make sure you have a reliable tank for this one because they're going to get some work. Do not attempt this before it shows as Easy if you're new. This is going to be difficult without AoE DPS options. It's also going to take a long time... (pssst...set up your formation, level up your Champs, place familiars to level them up if you can, then go offline...)
If you're brand new and only have Core/Evergreen Champs plus Melf, here's a formation setup that should help get you through the early levels until you can get another tank in front. Basically, you're splitting damage between two Champs to help you die slower. Bruenor has his Overhwelm Feat slotted while Nayeli is in Devotion spec and Calliope is in Lore spec to increases survivability. Good luck!

Free Play

Cost: 500-2500 Bouquets
Complete: Level 50 to earn a random Melf chest
Reward: See above + whatever Lathander's Favor you earned
Info: No restrictions.


Recruit Melf - 1%
Recruit Melf, the Elf Wizard/Fighter
Melf's Vigorous Variants - 1%
Complete all three variants of the "The Endless War (Melf)" adventure.
Melf's Marvelous Equipment - 1%
Obtain a piece of gear for each of Melf's six equipment slots. (Event Champ gear does not come from regular SilveGold Chests. You can earn Event Champ gear from their specific Event Chests, Time Gates, and other limited-time Chests as noted.)
Melf's Free Play Slog - 1%
Complete area 275 in any "The Endless War" free play.
Melf's "Broken" RNG - 1%
Complete 200 consecutive areas with Melf's Speedy Supplement providing the same buff.

Adventure Information

Indoor # Outdoor #
30 20

Type Summary

  • Aberration - 4
  • Humanoid - 4
  • Fey - 1
  • Undead - 1
Normal Mobs
  • Humanoid - 26
  • Undead - 14
  • Plant - 11
  • Aberration - 11
  • Beasts - 7
  • Fey - 3

Type by Level - repeats after 50

  1. O - Beasts
  2. O - Beasts
  3. O - Beasts & Fey
  4. O - Beasts & Fey
  5. O - Beasts & Fey > Fey
  6. O - Beasts
  7. O - Humanoid
  8. O - Humanoid
  9. O - Humanoid
  10. O - Humanoid > Humanoid
  11. O - Humanoid
  12. O - Humanoid
  13. O - Humanoid
  14. O - Humanoid
  15. O - Humanoid > Humanoid
  16. O - Humanoid
  17. O - Humanoid
  18. O - Undead & Humanoid
  19. O - Undead
  20. O - Undead > Undead
  21. I - Undead
  22. I - Undead & Humanoid
  23. I - Humanoid > Blockade
  24. I - Humanoid
  25. I - Humanoid > Humanoid
  26. I - Undead
  27. I - Undead
  28. I - Undead
  29. I - Undead
  30. I - Undead > Aberration
  31. I - Plant
  32. I - Plant
  33. I - Plant & Aberration
  34. I - Plant & Aberration
  35. I - Plant > Aberration
  36. I - Undead & Beasts
  37. I - Undead & Humanoid
  38. I - Humanoid
  39. I - Aberration & Humanoid
  40. I - Humanoid > Humanoid
  41. I - Plant
  42. I - Plant & Aberration
  43. I - Plant & Humanoid
  44. I - Humanoid & Aberration
  45. I - Plant & Humanoid > Aberration
  46. I - Undead & Humanoid
  47. I - Undead & Plant & Humanoid
  48. I - Humanoid & Aberration
  49. I - Aberration & Plant
  50. I - Aberration > Aberration

Community Event Discussions

submitted by Gaarawarr to idlechampions [link] [comments]

[MEA Spoilers] Mass Effect Andromeda Romance Survey Results

A week ago I posted a survey where you were asked to report your Andromeda lock-in romances and casual romances, and rate the attractiveness of Ryder's potential love interests. More than 1500 people responded, I have spreadsheets for days, and I have analysis prepared for presentation.
Let's start with the basics.
73% reported as male. 26.3% reported as female. 0.7% reported as non-binary.
74.8% reported as heterosexual. 16.2% reported as bisexual. 7.3% reported as homosexual. 1.7% reported as another sexuality.
60.8% played as male Ryder, whilst 39.2% played as female Ryder. Who played as who? 70.6% of males played as male Ryder, and 90.1% of females played as female Ryder.
Locking In a Romance
Respondent demographics 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
All Males Peebee (32.4%) Cora (29.9%) Vetra (21.4%) Suvi (4.4%) Gil (3.9%) None (3%) Reyes (2.5%) Jaal (1.3%); Liam (1.3%)
Male Heterosexual Peebee (35.6%) Cora (32%) Vetra (22.4%) Suvi (4%) None (3%) Liam (1.1%) Jaal (0.9%) Reyes (0.8%) Gil (0.3%)
Male Bisexual Cora (31.9%) Peebee (22.7%) Vetra (21%) Jaal (5.9%); Suvi (5.9%) Gil (5%); Reyes (5%) None (1.7%) Liam (0.8%)
Male Homosexual Gil (43.4%) Reyes (17.1%) Peebee (10.5%); Vetra (10.5%) Suvi (6.6%) None (5.4%) Liam (3.9%) Cora (2.3%)
Male Other Peebee (22.2%); Reyes; (22.2%); Vetra (22.2%) Cora (11.1%); Gil (11.1%); Suvi (11.1%)
All Females Jaal (35%) Reyes (28.3%) Peebee (11.9%) Vetra (8.9%) Liam (8.7%) Cora (4.5%) Suvi (1.5%) Gil (1%) None (0.2%)
Female Heterosexual Reyes (41.5%) Jaal (39.3%) Liam (9.6%) Peebee (3.5%) Vetra (3.1%) Cora (1.7%) Gil (0.9%) None (0.4%)
Female Bisexual Jaal (36%) Peebee (17.6%) Reyes (12%); Vetra (12%) Cora (10.4%) Liam (9.6%) Gil (1.6%) Suvi (0.8%)
Female Homosexual Peebee (48.6%) Vetra (31.4%) Suvi (14.3%) Jaal (5.7%)
Female Other Jaal (28.6%); Reyes (28.6%) Vetra (21.4%) Cora (7.1%); Liam (7.1%); Peebee (7.1%)
Non-Binary Vetra (46.2%) Jaal (23.1%) Peebee (15.4%) Cora (7.7%); Suvi (7.7%)
All Respondents Peebee (26.8%) Cora (22.9%) Vetra (18.3%) Jaal (10.4%) Reyes (9.3%) Suvi (3.7%) Liam (3.2%) Gil (3.1%) None (2.2%)
When looking at all respondents, the top slots are no surprise; the top four are squadmates afforded more screentime than their brethren, and the top three are female characters more likely to appeal to the male heterosexual majority of respondents. The surprising outcome here is that Liam is languishing as far back as he is, considering he’s a squadmate option. Bioware might wish to reconsider how they approached Liam’s romance.
This result aligns fairly closely with the prediction of one of our Redditors, AutumnLantern, who is a screenwriter and assessed the romances available to a male Ryder only, predicting that due to imbalanced screentime and character pros and fails, Peebee, with over one hour of relationship content, would be preferred over Cora (49 min), Vetra (36 min), Reyes (26 min), and Gil (19 min). See here for AutumnLantern’s detailed breakdown of why other character romances are set to fail in comparison to Peebee. In short, Bioware might want to think about more screentime and better character balancing in order to round out and create more satisfying romances amongst the lesser picked characters.
Casual Romances
In addition to looking at who was popular with whom for a serious relationship, we asked respondents who they had casual relationships with. Multiple choices were allowed.
Technically the winner here is no one, as 664 people who locked in a romance indicated that they did not pursue any other relationship. Going down the list, Peebee rules the roost here in casual relationships as she is most people’s second choice even if they chose someone else to get serious with. This is again not surprising given Peebee’s screentime. The second, third, and fourth most popular picks here are all non-squadmates, suggesting that Ryders playing the field like to do so on the down low. In the case of Peebee and Reyes, who can both be locked in with, both characters gain more votes here than they did in the locked in vote, suggesting that even when not chosen they were many people’s second choice. Jaal, Vetra, and Cora’s numbers are considerably lower than their locked in scores, suggesting that when people did pursue them they preferred to get serious rather than keep it casual.
Discounting sample sizes of less than 20 (which tend to produce extreme results), which groups only had eyes for their locked-in romance and no other? Male heterosexual respondents whose beloved was Vetra stuck with her 53.69% of the time. The group most interested in spreading the love around were male bisexual respondents who had romanced Cora, who only inspired 15.79% to choose her alone. Both this most faithful group and this most flirtatious group, when they did decide to share the love, most often chose Peebee as the subject of their affections. As a whole, regardless of player demographics, the characters who inspired the most fidelity were Reyes, followed closely by Vetra. Cora attracted the most people looking to play the field.
Character Percentage of Romancers With No Other Romances
Reyes Vidal 61.76%
Vetra Nyx 58.43%
Peebee 48.89%
Jaal Ama Darav 46.21%
Liam Kosta 45.81%
Suvi Anwar 37.04%
Gil Brodie 34.78%
Cora Harper 28.45%
Who is the Fairest of them All? Ryder’s Romances Rated by Attractiveness
The table below shows the results from all respondents, not disaggregated by gender identity or sexual orientation. The mean is the average score. The median is the exact middle value of the ratings – 50% of responses were above it, and 50% of ratings were below it.
Character Mean Median Respondents
Peebee 7.0 7 1400
Suvi Anwar 7.0 7 1388
Cora Harper 6.8 7 1400
Vetra Nyx 6.5 7 1380
Reyes Vidal 6.4 7 1390
Keri T’Vessa 6.0 6 1380
Jaal Ama Darav 5.3 6 1371
Avela Kjar 5.1 5 1348
Liam Kosta 4.9 5 1370
Gil Brodie 4.6 5 1373
Peebee and Suvi are in a dead heat for the lead. Reyes is the best-liked male character, in the middle of the table. Gil comes in last, behind Liam. As with DarylZer0’s “How Attractive Are Shepard’s Love Interests” survey, the results are heavily skewed due to the fact that male heterosexuals are the single largest group (57.4%) among respondents and have the strongest tendency to give male characters ‘1’ ratings. This tended to drag down the mean of male characters. In fact, male heterosexuals handed out the lowest rating to characters far more than any other group, at 10.5% frequency. The group least inclined to give a ‘1’ was male bisexuals, at just 3.8% of all scores given by that demographic.
Breaking down the results by gender reveals just how these factors affect ratings. First, the results from males:
Character Mean Median Respondents
Cora Harper 7.3 8 1038
Peebee 7.3 8 1033
Suvi Anwar 7.3 8 1030
Vetra Nyx 6.4 7 1023
Keri T’Vessa 6.3 7 1025
Reyes Vidal 5.6 6 1010
Avela Kjar 5.2 5 992
Jaal Ama Darav 4.7 5 1013
Liam Kosta 4.4 5 1011
Gil Brodie 4.3 5 1011
As might be expected, the results are fairly similar to the aggregated scores. Cora, Peebee, and Suvi are all within a hair’s breadth of each other and the top slot. Male characters languish in the second half of the table. The results are pretty heavily influenced by the fact that heterosexual males made up 81.6% of all male respondents.
Here are the results from females:
Character Mean Median Respondents
Reyes Vidal 8.2 8 366
Vetra Nyx 6.9 7 343
Jaal Ama Darav 6.6 7 354
Liam Kosta 6.3 6 345
Suvi Anwar 6.2 7 344
Peebee 6.1 7 353
Cora Harper 5.6 6 348
Gil Brodie 5.4 6 348
Keri T’Vessa 5.2 5 341
Avela Kjar 5.0 5 343
Males trended towards the top of the table as the majority of female respondents were heterosexual (56.8%). Cora, Peebee, and Suvi are pushed down the mid-table, whilst Reyes, Jaal, and Liam shoot to the top of the board, all three leaping up five places from their previous positions.
And the results from non-binary respondents:
Character Mean Median Respondents
Vetra Nyx 7.1 8 14
Reyes Vidal 6.9 8 14
Peebee 6.8 7 14
Jaal Ama Darav 6.2 5.5 13
Cora Harper 6 6.5 14
Liam Kosta 5.6 6.5 14
Suvi Anwar 5.6 6 14
Keri T’Vessa 5.2 5 14
Avela Kjar 5.1 5 13
Gil Brodie 3.6 4.5 14
The sample size from non-binary respondents is so small that it’s doubtful useful conclusions can be drawn, but Vetra and Reyes, favourites with the females, and Peebee, favourite with the males, fill out the top three.
How does sexual orientation affect results? Here are the results from heterosexual males:
Character Mean Median Respondents
Peebee 7.5 8 840
Suvi Anwar 7.5 8 837
Cora Harper 7.4 8 845
Vetra Nyx 6.6 7 831
Keri T’Vessa 6.3 7 834
Reyes Vidal 5.3 6 816
Avela Kjar 5.2 5 809
Jaal Ama Darav 4.7 5 819
Liam Kosta 4.2 5 818
Gil Brodie 3.9 4 817
This is almost exactly as you’d expect, and closely mirrors the overall results. Keri and Reyes have swapped places, female characters’ scores are higher, and male characters’ scores are lower. There aren’t really any surprises here.
Bisexual males:
Character Mean Median Respondents
Peebee 7.2 7 114
Reyes Vidal 7.1 7 113
Cora Harper 7.0 7.5 114
Suvi Anwar 6.7 7 114
Keri T’Vessa 6.4 7 114
Vetra Nyx 5.8 6.5 114
Gil Brodie 5.7 6 113
Liam Kosta 5.6 6 113
Avela Kjar 5.2 5 109
Jaal Ama Darav 4.9 5 113
Things are shaken up quite a bit with the bisexual males. The range of means is less broad, and whilst females still dominate the upper half of the table, Reyes has shot up to second place, whilst Jaal has fallen into last place.
Homosexual males:
Character Mean Median Respondents
Reyes Vidal 7.6 8 73
Gil Brodie 6.5 7 73
Suvi Anwar 6.3 7 71
Vetra Nyx 6.1 6.5 70
Cora Harper 5.9 6 71
Jaal Ama Darav 5.8 6 73
Peebee 5.7 6 71
Liam Kosta 5.5 6 72
Keri T’Vessa 5.3 5 69
Avela Kjar 4.4 5 66
We get a different picture again from the homosexual males. It’s not surprising that Reyes and Gil – the only two male romances available to a male Ryder – are occupying the top, but Suvi’s popular too in third. Cora has slipped to fifth, and Peebee has crashed down into seventh.
Other orientation males:
Character Mean Median Respondents
Vetra Nyx 6.8 7 8
Suvi Anwar 6.4 6 8
Reyes Vidal 6.3 6 8
Cora Harper 6.1 6 8
Keri T’Vessa 6 5 8
Gil Brodie 5.9 7 8
Peebee 5.6 6 8
Jaal Ama Darav 5.3 5 8
Avela Kjar 5 5 8
Liam Kosta 4.8 5 8
Again the sample size is really too small to draw useful conclusions, but Cora and Peebee seem to be less popular, whilst Reyes and Gil gain a small boost, as do Vetra and Suvi.
Heterosexual females:
Character Mean Median Respondents
Reyes Vidal 8.4 8 194
Jaal Ama Darav 7.2 8 173
Vetra Nyx 6.6 7 171
Liam Kosta 6.4 7 173
Gil Brodie 5.7 6 176
Suvi Anwar 5.7 6 172
Peebee 5.1 6 182
Cora Harper 5.1 5 176
Avela Kjar 4.9 5 172
Keri T’Vessa 4.8 5 170
The heterosexual females expressed very different preferences from the overall scores. In a reversal of the heterosexual males’ results, this table has female characters bar Vetra occupying the second half of the table, whilst males dominate the top. Jaal and Reyes are absolutely storming into the lead, and Gil and Liam have risen to mid-table, a considerable jump compared to their aggregate scores.
Bisexual females:
Character Mean Median Respondents
Reyes Vidal 8.0 8 124
Vetra Nyx 7.0 8 124
Peebee 6.9 7 123
Liam Kosta 6.6 7 124
Suvi Anwar 6.6 7 124
Jaal Ama Darav 6.5 7 124
Cora Harper 6.0 6.5 124
Keri T’Vessa 5.5 6 123
Gil Brodie 5.3 5.5 124
Avela Kjar 5.1 5 124
Reyes is still in the lead for bisexual females, but Vetra proves to be the second favourite. Gil loses the popularity he had with heterosexual females when it comes to bisexual females.
Homosexual females:
Character Mean Median Respondents
Peebee 7.9 8 35
Vetra Nyx 7.4 8 35
Suvi Anwar 7.1 8 35
Cora Harper 6.2 6 34
Keri T’Vessa 5.8 6 35
Reyes Vidal 5.4 6 35
Avela Kjar 5.0 5 34
Jaal Ama Darav 4.9 5 35
Gil Brodie 4.8 5 35
Liam Kosta 4.5 5 35
The table for homosexual females naturally prioritises female characters romanceable by a female Ryder, though Cora still comes in fairly strong in fourth, and the male characters are back in the second half of the table.
Other orientation females:
Character Mean Median Respondents
Reyes Vidal 8.8 9 13
Jaal Ama Darav 8.2 8 13
Vetra Nyx 8.1 8 13
Suvi Anwar 7.1 7 13
Liam Kosta 6.7 7 13
Cora Harper 6.2 6 13
Peebee 5.9 6 13
Avela Kjar 5.6 5 13
Keri T’Vessa 4.9 5 13
Gil Brodie 4.8 5 13
This is another sample size that is too small to make useful conclusions from, however, it bears similarities to the heterosexual females, with Reyes and Jaal at the top and Cora and Peebee mid-table.
TL;DR - Final Summary
When examining Andromeda’s romances, it’s worth keeping in mind that the overall results are wildly skewed due to the fact that 73% were male, and 81.6% of them were heterosexual. Who is actually the most popular serious romance, casual romance, and rated the most attractive varies enormously depending on respondent gender and sexual orientation, and it is more helpful to look at the disaggregated scores in order to understand who is appealing to whom.
Cora – It’s no surprise that Cora is most attractive to heterosexual males, and second to bisexual males. With other groups she tends to be rated middle of the table in attractiveness. Heterosexual males and bisexual males locked in romances with her with almost the exact same frequency – although straight males still preferred Peebee, but for bisexual males Cora was the number one romance pick. However, she was also the character most likely to not be the player’s only romance, and she was not often picked as a casual romance. All in all, Cora’s results are what you’d expect given the demographics, and her screentime.
Gil – Gil was the most attractive to homosexual males, although both bisexual males and heterosexual females both rated him moderately attractive at 5.7. For other groups, Gil often languished in the bottom three in terms of attractiveness. He was rarely chosen as a casual romance pick, and as far as romance lock-ins go he was the first choice, by a long way (43.7%) for male homosexuals but didn’t make it into the top three for any other group. It’s pretty obvious the ball has been dropped here in terms of Gil’s screentime compared to other characters, and in terms of available male-male romance options. Bioware might want to think about that.
Jaal – Reactions to Jaal are very spread across genders and orientations. Heterosexual males, bisexual males, and homosexual females rated him low, heterosexual females let it be known that they rated him highly, and for everyone else Jaal tended to be seen as moderately attractive. Jaal’s second place on straight females’ attractiveness table was also reflected by his second place amongst their romance lock-in picks. His performance is not that surprising given his screentime and status as a squadmate.
Liam – Liam is another character that has lost out somewhat on the romance front. Heterosexual and bisexual females rated him the highest of any groups in attractiveness, but he still never rose above fourth place with either, and with everyone else he shuttles between mid and bottom of the table. He was, however, the third most popular pick for straight females to lock in, though his percentage is a bit low on that (9.6%). Liam is quite clearly underperforming given his screentime and the fact that he is a squadmate. Gil’s problems are explicable in part by his lack of screentime, but that is not the case with Liam.
Peebee – Peebee is fairly dominant in the romance stakes. Heterosexual males, bisexual males, and homosexual females all have her topping their attractiveness charts, with the top rating (7.9) given by homosexual females. She is least attractive to heterosexual females, who rated her 5.1, and otherwise hovers mid-table. She’s the most popular lock-in with straight males and gay females, although bi males prefer to get serious with Cora. She’s also the most frequently picked casual romance when the respondents had a different locked-in romance. This is absolutely not a surprising result in any way. The romantic odds are stacked heavily in Peebee’s favour since she is available to both male and female Ryders, commands the most screentime in her romance of any character (well over an hour, compared to Cora’s 49 minutes as her nearest rival), and lacks the same kind of character flaws that the others have.
Reyes – Well, this is another surprising result, but for the opposite reasons to Gil and Liam. Reyes was considered the most attractive character by heterosexual females, bisexual females, and homosexual males. In fact, of any character across any group, he absolutely crushes the opposition into the ground with a 8.4 rating from straight females. The lowest rating he ever gets is 5.3 from the heterosexual males, and bisexual males gave him 7.1 and only preferred Peebee in the attractiveness stakes. He’s the third most picked casual romance, and when it comes to locking in, he was the most locked in for heterosexual females, second place for homosexual males, and third place for bisexual females – the discrepancy likely owing to the character’s divisive turning point. And this is from a character who is not a squadmate, and whose 26 minute screentime is well below others. Reyes punches well above his weight, and Bioware should probably take notice of this fan favourite.
Suvi – Suvi is equal with Peebee in straight males’ attractiveness ratings, and though she doesn’t top anyone else’s tables, she performs consistently well. She never drops below 5.7 (from heterosexual females), and consistently sits in the top half of all tables except straight females. However, she’s not often locked-in as a romance, the most frequently being 14.8% with gay females. She is doing fairly well considering she’s a non-squadmate. Must be the Scottish accent.
Vetra – Vetra’s a consistent performer in the romance stakes. Straight and gay males place her fourth on their attractiveness tables, though she drops to sixth for bisexual males. She’s in second for gay and bi females, however, and third for straight females. Her highest rating is 7.4 from gay females, and the lowest is 5.8 from bi males. In terms of locking in, straight, bi, and gay males, and bi females make her their third pick, whilst she’s second choice for gay females. Further, straight males who chose her tended not to romance anyone else casually. In short, whilst Vetra isn’t a favourite, people tend to agree that she’s attractive and a desirable romance.
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Education Calculators

1rm Calculator
Good 1RM can be calculated directly using maximal testing or indirectly using submaximal estimates. Submaximal estimation method is preferred because it is safer, faster, and less intimidating to inexperienced exercisers ; However, it may underestimate the actual 1RM One rep maximum calculator used to predict maximum lift one rep. This level of accuracy can vary largely depending on the experience of weight training and muscle composition of athletes. Also, most of one rep maximum calculator is designed for experienced strength trainers, and those with little experience may find they are actually one rep maximum is much lower because their nervous system can not handle the stress of a high weight. This test should be done with a spotter for safety reasons.
weight training protocols often use 1RM when programming to ensure achieve resistance exercise excessively, especially when the purpose of the exercise is muscle strength, endurance or hypertrophy. By understanding the full potential of the muscle, it is possible to achieve an excessive endurance by increasing the number of repetitions of the exercise.
Determining 1 rep max can be done directly through trial and error and just needed exercise to complete one full repetition maximum weight. There are several common formulas used to estimate 1RM using submaximal method, which Epley and Brzycki most common. In the formula below, r is the number of repetitions performed and w is the amount of weight used w is a factor of each formula, so that the unit of measurement does not matter ).

Antilog Calculator
What antilogarithm and how is it calculated?
As we said, the logarithm is proportional) to the exponential function, so ... Yeah, you're right! This antilogarithm just exponentially! To calculate antilog of a number y, you need to increase the logarithm base b (usually 10, sometimes e), with the power of y:
x = logb-1 (y) = by
Since the log and antilog are inverse functions, then this means that x = by = blogbx, and y = logbx = logb (by).
Example calculation of the inverse log
Determine the amount you want to find the antilogarithm of, let's say it's three.
Type in your base - assume we want to calculate the natural antilog. We can incorporate the expected Euler number equal to 2.71828 or simply type "e" - a calculator to understand it.
Antilog value appears below: was 20.086 (third force e).

Arithmetic Sequence Calculator
Once you start diving into the topic of what the arithmetic sequence, it is likely that you will find some confusion. This happens for a variety of naming conventions used.
Two of the most common terms you might encounter is the arithmetic sequence and series. The first one is also often called an arithmetic progression, while the latter is also called a partial amount.
The main difference between the sequence and series is that by definition, is simply an arithmetic sequence set of numbers created by adding a common difference every time. Arithmetic series, on the other head, is the sum of n terms of a sequence. For example, you might show the sum of the first 12 terms with S₁₂ = a₁ + a₂ + ... + a₁₂.
This sequence arithmetic calculator (also called arithmetic series calculator) is a useful tool for analyzing the sequence of numbers created by adding a constant value every time. You can use it to find any property of the order - the first term, the common difference, the term nᵗʰ, or the amount of n first term. You can dive right into using it or read on to discover how it works.
In this article, we describe the definition of arithmetic sequence, sequence similarity to clarify that the use of calculators, and hand you the formula to find a series of arithmetic (sum of arithmetic progression). We also provide an overview of the differences between the sequences of arithmetic and geometry and an easily understood example of the application of our tools.

Binary Translator
binary number system, in mathematics, the system employs a position number 2 as basic and only requires two different symbols for digits, 0 and 1, instead of the usual 10 different symbols that are required in the decimal system. Figures from 0 to 10 is thus in binary 0, 1, 10, 11, 100, 101, 110, 111, 1000, 1001, and 1010. The importance of the binary system of information theory and computer technology or derived primarily from a compact and reliable way where 0 and 1 can be represented in electromechanical devices with two state-like "on-off," "open-closed" or "go-no go" (See numbers and number systems. binary system.)

Arc Length Calculator
If you talk about the definition of arc length in simple terms, it is the length of the circumference part. The radius of the circle and the corner where the arc is built is an important parameter for the reduction of this value. In addition, they are an important part of the formula as well.
The main reason for using this calculator arc
There are many factors that one must consider when he or she chooses arc length calculator. Here are some of the major plus points of this specific offer tools for users.
  1. Hassle-free fast calculation of arc length
There is nothing better than getting done by calculating the arc length in a very fast and that too without any errors. People think that knowing the arc length formula enough to get accurate results. The facts are very different and we can get an understanding by examining a set of values ​​which are given below.
Arc Length = 25.77 meters
Angle = 3.66 radians
Using these values ​​in the formula arc length is not an easy nut to crack. This input in decimal so most of the time will be consumed for multiplication. Decimal handling is not easy in any way and every step of the process of multiplication should be consumed with caution. When the manual calculation is done, there is a high risk of making mistakes. Unlike whole numbers, more concentration is required when one decimal handling.
This calculator helps the user to calculate the arc length even when the input values ​​are complex. When you've entered radius and angle values, calculation steps will be done automatically by using the tool.
  1. Doubts free alternative to obtain accurate values
Dealing with mathematical calculations is none other than getting the right answer. If you spend two hours writing steps and the output is not correct solution, there is no point in spending time on these measures. The use of top standard arc length calculator is much better than exhausting yourself mentally through manual calculations. The time you will spend on manually calculate the results can be used for some purpose other positive. Even when you exhaust yourself by completing so many calculation steps, the possibility of making mistakes is still there. So, do not take the risk. Using this tool will help you in several ways including producing accurate results. This quality online tool does not make human errors so that the answer is generated. One does not have to confirm the answer produced by any means.

Average Calculator
In the language of mathematics, "average" is often referred to as "mean" or "median number." In fact, in the statistics, there are two other types of average - "median" the "mode" and But the word "average" allows you to find the average of the two numbers or group numbers in mathematics, which can be calculated by adding the fundamental and division.
Why's the average?
What is "average" or "mean" mean? The number of values ​​to be used by the count (or quantity) of the set which is technically split. In terms of the real world, however, is more like evenly distribute the value of the entire series between the numbers, and then switch to the value of all the numbers.
Theoretically, to calculate (or quantity) of the set, you divide the number of values ​​that you face. In real, it was more like equalization between each character of the assessment of the complete set and went back later to see the value in which all the numbers end up.
This kind of average is helpful to understand large data sets or to estimate the entire group. For example, the average GPA for your student, the average pay for a particular job, the average GPA for the class, the average amount of time to walk to the bus stop, etc. may be required.
How to find the average or mean value?
The arithmetic mean or average can easily find in the list of numbers given. an average of only the sum of the numbers in a particular issue, divided by the number. For example, if four digits are added in their number, then the average or arithmetic mean divided by four.
As mentioned above, the average or arithmetic mean is sometimes mistaken for the two other ideas: median and mode. The mode is the most common value in the group number, while the median is the center of a particular set.
usage of Average Calculator
You have to know how the mean or average of a series of numbers can be calculated. This will allow you, among other things, to calculate the value of your average. However, for some other situations as well, you will need to calculate the average value.
The average value or average allows for better understanding of the most common conditions for economists, demographic, biological, statisticians, and others.
For example, by calculating and comparing the average income of American families with the cost of the average home, the extent of the financial difficulties faced by most households in the United States may be better understood.
Likewise, by examining the average temperature at a given time in a given region, the possibility of unpredictable weather and a vast variety right choice can be made.

Arcsin Calculator
This is not an easy task to develop a desire to mathematics. A lot of effort, dedication and concentration necessary for this purpose. Geometry is one of the harder parts of the subject. Most geometric values ​​can not be determined manually even if you have command and incredible knowledge. Consider that you need to determine the value.
A free tool favored by the high number of users
There is a big difference between finding a free tool that actually does not charge money from users. When you search the internet, you will find plenty of free tools, but most of them have conditions attached. For example, of the five features, one or two will be free and that too for a limited period. It does not have a problem like that is why most users prefer.
Students find this tool very useful because they have to work on a math assignment. Consider that you need to complete the ten questions that ArcSin must be determined. If you have to work on a task online, there is no reason to use a physical calculator because this tool is a better match. Most other tools are relied require the customer to make a payment. With this tool, no such restrictions apply. You can use this tool for free and do a lot of calculations you want. No need to pay anything for each option.

Binary Calculator
How the division is done in binary systems?
The concept of division in the binary system is the same as the process very large of the decimal system involving division. divider dividends again, here binary subtraction is used instead of decimal reduction. You have to be skilled in binary cuts and reductions if it will not be difficult for you.
How is it done in addition to the binary system?
There are similarities between the additions used in a binary system and used in the process of adding a decimal system. When there is a need to bring more than 1 then the added value becomes equal to 10, it occurs when the addition is equal to 2. Please, see calculation below to know better about adding binary numbers.
Read more: https://stilwell-edwin.tumblr.com/post/190232100215/education-calculators
submitted by Stilwell8604 to u/Stilwell8604 [link] [comments]

'ipih' debut & overview

This is very VERY long, and I apologise for that!

Hello, everybody!
I don't know what sparked me to come back to conlanging again after so long. I just needed the mental challenge, I suppose. Some of you may remember I had a previous conlang called 'zaz' which had the goal of being incredibly small, while retaining all information of a sentence. And it did pretty well! It was just an absolute pain to speak...
So, I set myself out with a new task this week: to create a language which 'lossy' (as opposed to 'lossless') compresses text, in the form of an oligosynth. i.e. I get to cut a lot of corners :P
Without further ado, I'll go over the phonology, grammar, etc, I have wrote down so far, and a hefty corpus of 70 sentences from the 218 sentences list.

Phonology & Orthography

Binary Hex Romanised Numeric IPA
0000 0x0 [space] NaN / /
0001 0x1 p 0 /p/
0010 0x2 t 1 /t/
0011 0x3 k 2 /k/
0100 0x4 f 3 /f/
0101 0x5 w 4 /θ/
0110 0x6 s 5 /s/
0111 0x7 c N/A /ʃ/
1000 0x8 x N/A /x/
1001 0x9 h N/A /ç/
1010 0xA i 0 /i/
1011 0xB e 1 /ɛ/
1100 0xC a 2 /a/
1101 0xD o 3 /ɔ/
1110 0xE q 4 /ɒ/
1111 0xF u 5


A very simple VCV(C), giving 324 (6*9*6) possible roots. (C) is optionally added for grammar
The great benefit of this is that you don't need to use any spaces! You simply break between two V's or after two lots of C's.
To make things even smaller, there is a list of paired vowel phonemes which are mixed into one phoneme, but as this is pretty long here's the list of them (the two vowels on the left, their combination on the right). Please comment on how I could improve this, as it's very slap-dash the moment! I basically ran out of vowels, by the time I reached the u's.
Numbers are represented in a base-5 system, where you simply use the characters as numbers and pop an 'x' on the end. However, unlike my old conlang, zaz, of which this is inspired by (where zaz had 16 vowels and consonants to play with), the words cannot be longer than 3 characters. Ergo, you can only represent a number up to 125... eheh... I'll work on it later... And for colours, it's an RGB system, where the numerics are used for each of those colours. This gives the language effectively 125 colours! :D See the morphology examples.


The lexicon, I won't post on here just yet. Essentially, I band together similar concepts based on characters. So, at the moment, I have: i** - "Language features: pronouns, clause dividers, conditionals" e** - "Life, nature, time" a** - "Humanity and its stuff" o** - "Communication, mathematics, direction" q** - "Buildings, furniture, structures, protocols, objects, locations" u** - currently unlabeled, though I do have 'metre,' 'square,' and 'circle' in there at the moment.


As morphology

! denotes lexicon lookup -(nothing) !noun -p !verb -t !past -k !will -f be -w of the subject -s !adj -c currently unused -x !num/col -h !proper noun
I did try other methods of saving space here, with the tensing of verbs, but it was just too common and clumsy to do it any other way.
atip - to want/wanting atit - wanted atik - will want atif - X is desire -w - see corpus #31 atis - desired ipex - 001 (base 5) / 20% blue from black ikih - "iki"


Adjective/noun placement:
  1. Before the verb of a sentence, an adjective goes before the noun, and vice versa
  2. Adjectives follow the verb in order to describe it (c.f. #65)
  3. A number is identified as being before the noun, colour after noun (this is affected by 1.)
  4. For selection in a collection rather than describing the noun, place the adjective after the noun (this is affected by 1.)
  5. 'wood leg' is "leg wood" (walking stick), but 'leg wood' is 'wooden leg' (this is affected by 1.)
  6. The above will only span two nouns (c.f. #68 "above-adj collection plant head")
me food - my food you food - your food me mouth-verb food you - I eat your food animal food-of - the animal's food me mouth-verb food-of animal - I eat the animal's food
verb noun noun noun adjective - all nouns are affected by the verb and the adjective noun noun noun verb - all nouns participate in the verb See #68 for a case where three nouns in a row do not denote a list, as the are followed by an adjective before the verb
That's all, folks! The rest of it I play by ear, and will probably formalise later.


There are currently 6 scripts, which will be illustrated through #207 of the corpus (riiiiiiiight at the bottom of this post), in this link. All the scripts are based around the binary representation of the characters in each word.
The binary of #207 is 11001000.11111010.10011111.11100111.11100010.11010010.11000110.10110010.10100110.10100111.10101010.00011011.10100111.11001100.10001110.10100111.11001100.10001101.10100001.11101000.10110001.10100010.11100100.10101011.00101011.01101110.00111111.11100011.11100000
Script 1 is 'handwriting' - look closely at the binary of the corpus excerpt, and how the characters of this script are formed. Apart from 's' (0110) and 'h' (1001), all the characters (hopefully) pass through their binary 1's, when the binary is formatted as:
00 00 
So, for example, 'c' is 0111, producing this character.
Script 2 is 'circle' - just as the handwriting one, you can see that the circles represent the binary of each character, within ever decreasing circles of size, until a space is reached.
Script 3 is 'triangle', as inspired by Shoninjv's 'Hex' script. It's simply the binary representation of characters, as chains which flow downwards until after 4 words (in the example given).
Script 4 is 'isometric', also inspired by the above. It's the most complex, reading left-to-right, moving downwards per word. I've visually aided the break-down of it with colours: the blue is vowels, which are only 3-bits long. If you look at the binary representation of each character, you'll see each vowel's 4-bit binary always starts with a 1, so I've excluded it. So, the top line reads (1)100.1000.(1)111, as VCV.
'Script' 5 is 'barcode'. It's literally just the binary as laid out by solid bars, no spaces.
'Script' 6 is 'colourbar'. This is RGB (RedGreenBlue) colour rendered from each 3 bits, no spaces. As it's 4 bits per character, I just multiply its numeric value by 16 to get a value from 0 to 255. Oooor I just take the hex value and stick a hash on the front to make a colour such as #fff!
Bonus 'script' is audio, from 256Hz (B3~C4) to 768Hz (F#~G5) sine wave - 16Hz between each character. Unfortunately I generate this from JavaScript, so there's a click after each sound which I can't seem to fix, but you get the gist!
I think that's all, for now... Any questions, comments, etc, are welcome :)


The corpus is formatted as n. English, transcoded for ipih, ipih translated, /long IPA/, /compact IPA/
1. The sun shines. The sun is shining. sun sun-verb esi esip /ɛsi ɛsip/ /ɛsøsip/
2. The sun shone. sun sun-past esi esit /ɛsi ɛsit/ /ɛsøsit/
3. The sun will shine. sun sun-will esi esik /ɛsi ɛsik/ /ɛsøsik/
4. The sun has been shining. sun sun-past esi esit /ɛsi ɛsit/ /ɛsøsit/
5. The sun is shining again. sun sun-verb new esi esip ehq /ɛsi ɛsip ɛçɒ/ /ɛsøsipɛçɒ/
6. The sun will shine tomorrow. sun sun-will tomorrow esi esik exu /ɛsi ɛsik ɛxu/ /ɛsøsikɛxu/
7. The sun shines brightly. sun sun-verb fire-adj esi esip etas /ɛsi ɛsip ɛtas/ /ɛsøsipɛtas/
8. The bright sun shines. fire-adj sun sun-verb etas esi esip /ɛtas ɛsi ɛsip/ /ɛtasɛsøsip/
9. The sun is rising now. sun up-verb now esi otip exe /ɛsi ɔtip ɛxɛ/ /ɛsətipɛxɛ/
10. All the people shouted. person all noise-past epe iki etot /ɛpɛ iki ɛtɔt/ /ɛpekøtɔt/
11. Some of the people shouted. person partial-adj noise-past epe ikas etot /ɛpɛ ikas ɛtɔt/ /ɛpekasɛtɔt/
12. Many of the people shouted twice. person all-adj noise-past 002 epe ikis etot ipax /ɛpɛ ikis ɛtɔt ipax/ /ɛpekisɛtɔtipɛx/
13. Happy people often shout. person positive-adj noise-verb sometimes epe okis etop ika /ɛpɛ ɔkis ɛtɔp ika/ /ɛpʌkisɛtɔpika/
14. The kitten jumped up. animal up-past epa otit /ɛpa ɔtit/ /ɛpɶtit/
15. The kitten jumped down. animal down-past epa otet /ɛpa ɔtɛt/ /ɛpɶtɛt/
16. The kitten jumped onto the table. animal up-past epa otit /ɛpa ɔtit/ /ɛpɶtit/
17. My little kitten walked away. me water-adj animal there-verb ipi etes epa itop /ipi ɛtɛs ɛpa itɔp/ /ipøtɛsɛpaitɔp/
18. It's raining. rain-verb etep /ɛtɛp/ /ɛtɛp/
19. The rain came down. rain down-past ete otet /ɛtɛ ɔtɛt/ /ɛtʌtɛt/
20. The kitten is playing in the rain. animal happiness-verb within rain epa awip owi ete /ɛpa aθip ɔθi ɛtɛ/ /ɛpaːθipɔθøtɛ/
21. The rain has stopped. rain stop-verb ete ofop /ɛtɛ ɔfɔp/ /ɛtʌfɔp/
22. Soon the rain will stop. rain stop-verb time-adj ete ofop ofis /ɛtɛ ɔfɔp ɔfis/ /ɛtʌfɔpɔfis/
23. I hope the rain stops soon. I desire-verb rain stop-verb time-adj atip ete ofop ofis /atip ɛtɛ ɔfɔp ɔfis/ /atipɛtʌfɔpɔfis/
24. Once wild animals lived here. animal life-adj life-past here epa epis epit ita /ɛpa ɛpis ɛpit ita/ /ɛpæpisɛpitita/
25. Slowly she looked around. she eye-verb here-adj axq apep itas /axɒ apɛp itas/ /axɜpɛpitas/
26. Go away! you there-verb ipa itop /ipa itɔp/ /ipaitɔp/
27. Let's go! we_inclusive there-verb ipq itop /ipɒ itɔp/ /ipɞtɔp/
28. You should go. you there-verb if_then-adj ipa itop icos /ipa itɔp iʃɔs/ /ipaitɔpiʃɔs/
29. I will be happy to go. I happiness-be there-verb awif itop /aθif itɔp/ /aθifitɔp/
30. He will arrive soon. he here-will time-adj axu itak ofis /axu itak ɔfis/ /axɯtakɔfis/
31. The baby's ball has rolled away. child circle-of there-past axo upaw itot /axɔ upaθ itɔt/ /axɔupaθitɔt/
32. The two boys are working together. child 002 work-verb unison-adj axo ipex okqp acqs /axɔ ipɛx ɔkɒp aʃɒs/ /axɘpɛxɔkɒpaʃɒs/
33. This mist will probably clear away. this rain light-adj there-verb ease-adj iti ete etas itop okas /iti ɛtɛ ɛtas itɔp ɔkas/ /itøtɛːtasitɔpɔkas/
34. Lovely flowers are growing everywhere. plant happiness-adj plant-verb everywhere epo awis epop qpi /ɛpɔ aθis ɛpɔp ɒpi/ /ɛpɐθisɛpɔpɒpi/
35. We should eat more slowly. we_inclusive mouth-verb start-adj if_then-adj ipq apip ofas icos /ipɒ apip ɔfas iʃɔs/ /ipɜpipɔfasiʃɔs/
36. You have come too soon. you here-verb time-adj tall-adj ipa itap ofis oxes /ipa itap ɔfis ɔxɛs/ /ipaitapɔfisɔxɛs/
37. You must write more neatly. you hand-verb good-adj adult-adj if_then-adj ipa apqp ahqs axas icos /ipa apɒp açɒs axas iʃɔs/ /ipaːpɒpaçɒsaxasiʃɔs/
38. Directly opposite stands a wonderful palace. there opposite building-be happiness-adj ito qpe qfif awis /itɔ ɒpɛ ɒfif aθis/ /itɔɒpɛɒfifaθis/
39. Henry's dog is lost. ehe-prop animal unknown_location-adj ehex epa qpas /ɛçɛx ɛpa ɒpas/ /ɛçɛxɛpɑpas/
40. My cat is black. me animal 000 ipi epa ipix /ipi ɛpa ipix/ /ipøpaipix/
41. The little girl's doll is broken. child female toy-of destroy-adj axo axq qsiw ehos /axɔ axɒ ɒsiθ ɛçɔs/ /axɐxɒːsiθɛçɔs/
42. I usually sleep soundly. me night normality normality-adj ipi ese eki ekis /ipi ɛsɛ ɛki ɛkis/ /ipøsɛːkøkis/
43. The children ran after Jack. child leg-past speed-adj awa-prop unison-adj axo apot ofos awax acqs /axɔ apɔt ɔfɔs aθax aʃɒs/ /axɐpɔtɔfɔsaθaxaʃɒs/
44. I can play after school. I toy-will positive-adj afterwards education qsik okis exa ope /ɒsik ɔkis ɛxa ɔpɛ/ /ɒsikɔkisɛxɶpɛ/
45. We went to the village for a visit. we_exclusive here-past village for visit ipu itat qce ihi qxi /ipu itat ɒʃɛ içi ɒxi/ /ipɯtatɒʃeçʏxi/
46. We arrived at the river. we_exclusive here-past river ipu itat ete /ipu itat ɛtɛ/ /ipɯtatɛtɛ/
47. I have been waiting for you. I later-past for you exat ihi ipa /ɛxat içi ipa/ /ɛxatiçiːpa/
48. The campers sat around the fire. person nature calm-verb here-adj fire epe epi ekip itas eta /ɛpɛ ɛpi ɛkip itas ɛta/ /ɛpɛːpøkipitasɛta/
49. A little girl with a kitten sat near me. child female and animal calm-verb here-adj me axo axq ice epa ekip itas ipi /axɔ axɒ iʃɛ ɛpa ɛkip itas ipi/ /axɐxɞʃɛːpækipitasipi/
50. The child waited at the door for her father. child door later-past for adult actor axo qfe exat ihi axa ipe /axɔ ɒfɛ ɛxat içi axa ipɛ/ /axɔɒfɛːxatiçɪxaipɛ/
51. Yesterday the oldest girl in the village lost her kitten. child female village old-adj level-adj unknown_location-past animal actor yesterday axo axq qce ehus oxis qpat epa ipe exo /axɔ axɒ ɒʃɛ ɛçus ɔxis ɒpat ɛpa ipɛ ɛxɔ/ /axɐxɒːʃɛːçusɔxisɒpatɛpaipɛːxɔ/
52. Were you born in this village? you birth-past question within this village ipa ehat ihe owi iti qce /ipa ɛçat içɛ ɔθi iti ɒʃɛ/ /ipæçatiçʌθiːtʏʃɛ/
53. Can your brother dance well? you family male happiness-verb good-adj question ipa axi axu awip ahqs ihe /ipa axi axu aθip açɒs içɛ/ /ipaːxɪxɤθipaçɒsiçɛ/
54. Did the man leave? male there-past question axu itot ihe /axu itɔt içɛ/ /axɯtɔtiçɛ/
55. Is your sister coming for you? you family female here-will for you ipa axi axq itak ihi ipa /ipa axi axɒ itak içi ipa/ /ipaːxɪxɞtakiçiːpa/
56. Can you come tomorrow? you here-will positive-adj tomorrow ipa itak okis exu /ipa itak ɔkis ɛxu/ /ipaitakɔkisɛxu/
57. Have the neighbors gone away for the winter? neighbour there-past question for winter axe itot ihe ihi etq /axɛ itɔt içɛ içi ɛtɒ/ /axetɔtiçeçøtɒ/
58. Does the robin sing in the rain? animal music-verb question within rain epa akip ihe owi ete /ɛpa akip içɛ ɔθi ɛtɛ/ /ɛpaːkipiçʌθøtɛ/
59. Are you going with us to the concert? you question with we_exclusive there-verb music ipa ihe owe ipu itop aki /ipa içɛ ɔθɛ ipu itɔp aki/ /ipaiçʌθepɯtɔpaki/
60. Have you ever travelled in the jungle? you travel-past within nature before question ipa ofet owi epi exi ihe /ipa ɔfɛt ɔθi ɛpi ɛxi içɛ/ /ipɶfɛtɔθøpøxiːçɛ/
61. We sailed down the river for several miles. we_exclusive travel-past river south metre earth-adj nothing-adj ipu ofet ete otq upi etis ikes /ipu ɔfɛt ɛtɛ ɔtɒ upi ɛtis ikɛs/ /ipofɛtɛtʌtɒupøtisikɛs/
62. Everybody knows about hunting. person all neighbour-verb animal-verb epe iki axep epap /ɛpɛ iki axɛp ɛpap/ /ɛpekɪxɛpɛpap/
63. On a Sunny morning after the solstice we started for the mountains. special-adj sun summer earlier-adj afterwards we_exclusive travel-past earth tall-adj ehis esi eta exis exa ipu ofet eti oxes /ɛçis ɛsi ɛta ɛxis ɛxa ipu ɔfɛt ɛti ɔxɛs/ /ɛçisɛsøtæxisɛxaipofɛtɛtəxɛs/
64. Tom laughed at the monkey's tricks. oto-prop child-past animal chaos otox axot epa eke /ɔtɔx axɔt ɛpa ɛkɛ/ /ɔtɔxaxɔtɛpækɛ/
65. An old man with a walking stick stood beside the fence. male old with wood leg calm-past opposite-adj fence axu ehu owe qku apo ekit qpes qcu /axu ɛçu ɔθɛ ɒku apɔ ɛkit ɒpɛs ɒʃu/ /axɵçoθɛɒkɤpɞkitɒpɛsɒʃu/
66. The squirrel's nest was hidden by drooping boughs. animal nest-of night-past by nest-adj tree epa ekaw eset iho ekas qku /ɛpa ɛkaθ ɛsɛt içɔ ɛkas ɒku/ /ɛpækaθɛsɛtiçɞkasɒku/
67. The little seeds waited patiently under the snow for the warm spring sun. water-adj plant new later-past down-adj positive-adj snow for spring sun sun-adj etes epo ehq exat otes okis etq ihi ete esi esis /ɛtɛs ɛpɔ ɛçɒ ɛxat ɔtɛs ɔkis ɛtɒ içi ɛtɛ ɛsi ɛsis/ /ɛtɛsɛpɞçɒɛxatɔtɛsɔkisɛtɞçøtɛːsøsis/
68. Many little girls with wreaths of flowers on their heads danced around the bonfire. water-adj child female all-adj with up-adj collection plant head music-past here-adj fire etes axo axq ikis owe otis qxe epo apu akit itas eta /ɛtɛs axɔ axɒ ikis ɔθɛ ɔtis ɒxɛ ɛpɔ apu akit itas ɛta/ /ɛtɛsaxɐxɞkisɔθʌtisɒxɛːpɐpɤkititasɛta/
206. She has more friends than enemies. she adult-adj friend compare_to enemy axq axas acq icq acu /axɒ axas aʃɒ iʃɒ aʃu/ /axɜxasaʃɞʃɜʃu/
207. He was very poor, and with his wife and five children lived in a little low cabin of logs and stones. he state-past north-adj earth-adj also actor soft_and female soft_and child 005 life-past building water-adj tree rock axu ihut otas etis ici ipe ica axq ica axo ipqx epit qfi etes qku qkq /axu içut ɔtas ɛtis iʃi ipɛ iʃa axɒ iʃa axɔ ipɒx ɛpit ɒfi ɛtɛs ɒku ɒkɒ/ /axɯçutɔtasɛtisiʃiːpeʃaːxɞʃaːxɘpɒxɛpitɒføtɛsɒkʊkɒ/
Wew... I apologise for how long that was!
submitted by phunanon to conlangs [link] [comments]

Lesson 44 : Important Review and Clarification of Lessons 1 through 43

I have had a chance to go through and read hundreds of questions and replies from everyone. Before we proceed to the next lesson, there are some clarifications I need to make from previous lessons.
Some of these involve possible misunderstandings that may have come about from the way I explained a particular topic. Others involve questions and replies in the comment threads.
Lesson 7 : Include Statements
In this lesson I explained that you use include statements to "copy and paste" the contents of some programming source code into your existing program. With C and some languages, this is technically correct. It does not however address the real purpose.
It is extremely bad programming practice to do things this way. You do not put code in a file, and just cut-and-paste that code using an include statement to where you want it.
What you are really saying with an include statement is that you want to use the contents of the included file within your program. In other words, the include file contains code (functions especially) that will prove useful in your program.
Think of this line:
As meaning this:
I plan to use to use functions found in the stdio.h file in my program. 
Lesson 19 : Basics of numeric overflow.
When we speak of numeric overflow in the context of this lesson, we are referring to any time a mathematical operation produces a result which cannot fit in the number of bits allocated. For example, if we have four bits and we perform a mathematical operation that results in the number twenty-five, that result will not fit in our four bits and thus we have a numeric overflow.
While there are similarities, this is not the same thing as a "stack overflow", which will be the subject of at least one future lesson.
Lesson 20 : Basics of fractional numbers in binary.
I have explained that the radix point is the term used for the equivalent of a "decimal point" in binary. I need to be extra clear on three points:
  1. The radix point is not actually encoded in binary. Rather, it is understood by knowing how many bits correspond to the part of the number to the left of the radix point and how many bits correspond to the part of the number to the right of the radix point.
  2. The number to the left of the radix point is known as the "integer part".
  3. The number to the right of the radix point is known as the "fractional part".
Lesson 21 : The Basics of Numeric Data Types in C.
I have not covered all numeric data types in that lesson, or even up until now. We will be learning more as time goes on.
Also, as zahlman pointed out: The term 'long double' has nothing to do with combining a 'long' value and a 'double' value. It is actually often 10 bytes, although it may be stored in a 12-byte "slot" with the other two bytes being wasted.
Similarly, the sizes of a data type such as unsigned short int being two bytes long differs from compiler to compiler. This is true for all data types.
This does not matter if your goal is to write an executable program that you then deliver to systems running the same architecture and operating system as you. You will never need to worry about this in that case. That program will run on any computer that uses it if they have the same operating system and the same architecture (Example: 32 bit windows).
If however you are writing code that will be open-source, or you are otherwise going to make the source code available, you must be mindful that if you are using a data type of a specific size that may differ from compiler to compiler, you should let people know that as well as any other compiler unique optimizations and/or options you are using.
Lesson 22 : The "char" data type and the basics of ASCII.
Here and in general I showed you the following rules concerning how text and numbers are encoded in binary:
010 <-- All capital letters start with this. 011 <-- All lowercase letters start with this. 0011 <-- All numbers start with this.
Keep in mind that this is NOT reversible. This means that you cannot say that anything which starts with 010 is a capital letter for example. There are many ASCII characters that are not numbers or letters, and you should be mindful of this fact.
Lesson 26 : Introducing variables.
Here I showed how to create variables, for example:
int height = 10; 
The question was raised, what if I didn't specify a value? What if I had just written:
int height; 
This is legal, and will create the variable. However, anything at all could be its value. Why? Because when C creates the variable height it only decides where in memory it will reside. It does not set a value for it.
That means whatever binary sequence just happens to be at that memory address will be the value of the variable. This is not a good thing.
That is why as a programmer you should always initialize a variable to a value when you create it. Common practice is to assign a 0 to a variable until it is used if the value is not known at the time it is created.
Lesson 28 : About terminating strings of text and other data.
I am just going to quote zahlman here regarding the consequences of NOT terminating a string/other data properly:
The program might not print garbage; it might also crash, because as printf() cycles through memory looking for a byte that happens to have a zero value, it might encounter memory that doesn't belong to your program. The operating system generally doesn't like it very much when your program tries to work with memory that doesn't belong to it, and will put a stop to things.
Technically, the behaviour is undefined, which means anything is allowed to happen. A sobering thought. On Gamedev.net, it is a common joke to refer to accidental firing of nuclear missiles as a result. Your computer is almost certainly not actually capable of firing nuclear missiles, but it gets the point across.
Lesson 34 : Assigning a value to a pointer.
One thing I did not cover at the time I made the lesson, and therefore some people may have missed, is this: C is very forgiving when it comes to when you put spaces, and when you do not put spaces.
For example:
int height = 1; int height = 1 ; 
Are both valid, and will work fine. Although of course good practice is to format your code so it is easily readable.
Similarly, when you are using pointers, the following is equally valid:
int *ptr = &height; int * ptr = & height; int* ptr = &height ; 
Lesson 39 : About pointers concerning multi-byte variables.
Here I showed you the following code:
int height = 5; int width = 10; int *some_pointer = &height; *some_pointer = 8; some_pointer = some_pointer + 1; *some_pointer = 4; 
Then I explained, as is logically apparent from reading the above code, that this has the effect of first changing height to 8, and then changing width to 4. This would be correct if height and width reside in memory one right after the other. This is one of the assumptions being made about our 16-byte ram used in these types of lessons.
Do not ever write code like this in a real program. Your compiler chooses where to put variables you create and you have no way to know if they will be stored in ram the way this example assumes they are. The code above from this lesson is for instructive purposes only, to show you how pointers work in general.
Some clarifications about printf
It has not been addressed directly in a lesson, even though you have likely seen it used. With printf you can give it multiple parameters if you want to print various types of data. For example, the following is perfectly valid:
int height = 10; int width = 5; printf("Height is %d and Width is %d \n", height, width); 
This will have the output:
Height is 10 and Width is 5 
Next, I have not specifically addressed the \n character (note I did not say characters).
There are special ASCII characters which have meaning other than what you see on your keyboard. These characters are useful for tabs, new lines, and more. The text \n actually turns into a single character which is ASCII and, for those who are curious, looks like this:
0000 1010 
In other words, ten, or A in hexadecimal. This one character means "Go to the next line."
The final clarification I want to make concerning printf() is that many of you have used printf() with the %p option to print the addresses of pointers, which is great and helps to cement this understanding. However, be sure you remember the following:
printf("The address is: %p", some_pointer); 
What will be printed is the address IN some_pointer, not the address OF some_pointer. Also, this is invalid:
int height = 10; int *some_pointer = &height; printf("The address is: %p", *some_pointer); 
Do not do this. Remember that *some_pointer translates to: "Whatever is at the memory address stored in the pointer". It does not translate to: "The address of the pointer". It also does not translate to: "The address stored in the pointer".
Using *some_pointer in the above example results in: 10, the value stored in height. In other words, "what is at" the address stored in some_pointer is the value of height which is ten. Please ask questions if any of this is confusing to you.
Please fully review this material before proceeding to:
submitted by CarlH to carlhprogramming [link] [comments]

Game Programming from the Ground Up: Part 3

So, looking at our basic program, what actually happens when we say
int firstNumber
Well, this requires us to look deeper into the computer to understand this. Now, I could turn this into an entire course on Electrical Engineering, but would it make you understand what's actually going on? Maybe. Would it take a lot of time? Yes. You want to make games, and I'm trying to build the shortest path for you to understand completely what's going on; so you can start building awesome things. Consider this a crash course on what's going on under the hood.
When you declare a variable (in our case, named firstNumber), you make a place in memory especially for the contents of that variable, regardless of its type. The easiest way to think of it is as below.


A small block of memory made for our variable. If you've ever played Minecraft, think of any given block as a variable in memory: it has a location and a type.
But when we first say
int firstNumber
It's empty. And not just 0 empty, but vacuum sealed empty. In Java, we call this null: no typed value (Remember, the number 0 and null are different. 0 needs to have a type, and null is typeless.)
So, when you say
firstNumber = 2;
What happens? We inject our block with a value.

firstNumber = 2 <------ 2

There. Our variable has a type, a place in memory, and a value. Alright everyone, lets go home.
But wait. Wait wait wait. What about that thing where we did the multiplication and why are my magical hands unable to take my computer to infinity?! I demand satisfaction!
Ah. Right, we should cover that. But we need to give you some background how computers actually do math. This is going to require us to put down our coder hats and put on our math hats. Incidentally these should be the same hats, so I've just put a hat down and put it back on. I feel stupid.
Phase 5: Learning How to Count All Over Again
So you've probably heard about bits and bytes, and as Egoraptor would put it: blahbliggityblambloozle. Or something. You probably have an internet connection rated in Megabits or have downloaded at a speed of Kilobytes per second, but what does this actually mean?
To simplify it: when a computer wants to send information of any kind, it sends a series of bits from one component to another. What is a bit? It's a binary digit. So it sends a series of 0s and/or 1s from one point to another. If you stop to think about that for a moment, everything you do here on Reddit, or anywhere on a computer is, at its base, simply a series of 0s and 1s. Kind of wild, huh?
Counting in Binary:
What is binary, or base 2? A binary digit is a number which has two states: 0 or 1. Compared to decimal, or base 10, which has 10 states: 0 through 9.
So, how do we take the number, say...5 and convert it into 0101? Grab a piece of paper, because we're going full-on friendship:
To read binary (and subsequently, any number in any base), we need to know how digits actually work. When you read the base 10 number 34, what does this actually mean? Well, in our case, it's 30101 + 4100. So looking at 0101, it's 023 + 122 + 021 + 120. How am I getting these numbers!? Well, first you must know what base we're in, and for each place that number has, raise the base to that number's power. Then, add through for each place and you will receive the number in base 10.
Lets try another one in binary again: 1011. 1 * 23 + 0 * 22 + 1 * 21 + 1 * 2 ^ 0 = 11 base 10.
You try it: convert the following to base 10
  1. 1001 2. 1110 3. 1010
  2. 1100 5. 0010 6. 1111
Challenge mode:
What do you think? Comfortable?
  1. 9
  2. 14
  3. 10
  4. 12
  5. 2
  6. 15
Challenge mode: 182
Now...if only there were some program we had that could easily randomly generate binary numbers to challenge ourselves with...
I got it! Lets write one!
Introducing: the if statement
In order to make a program to test our binary counting abilities, we need to add logic to the mix. This is where the if statement comes in. The if statement syntax is:
if(is statement here true or false?)
So, to put that into terms Java would like:
if ( 5 > 3)
The terms in between the parenthesis are evaluated for truth. IF the terms are true, then what is placed within the {} of an if statement are executed. Otherwise, it is skipped.
If you want to do something else if your first term is false, you have a couple of options:
else if(term)
This will work exactly like an if statement, but only if the first statement is false. For instance:
if(3 > 5) else if (10 == 10)
Which, brings me back to the = operator. Remember way back, we talked about how the = sign has two purposes? This is the second purpose, Boolean logic. What the above statement says is: “(else) if 10 equals 10”. It is easy to get caught in the trap of confusing = and ==.
Finally, you have simply else, which is used as:
With brackets, no need for any terms. This is a blanket conditional, saying “If none of the above is true, else do this.” Neither else if nor else are actually required to make a complete if statement.
You try it: make a program that compares two numbers and determines which is greater. Here is the answer if you're absolutely lost.
So, with that said, we have 95% of the tools that we need to create our binary counter, the other 5% we need to retrieve from lesson magic™ , because of that crazy Object Oriented Programming mess I'm trying to shelter you from. It's for your own good!®
But I'm not going to boot you out of the roost with just what little we've covered. Here is the starter program to get you working on binary. We need to clarify a few things.
Random random = new Random();
This is called instantiation, or creating a new instance of an object. I'm really trying not to add too much to the mix at once, just know that this creates an object for us to use. Where do we use it?
decimal = random.nextInt(15);
What this says is: we assign a random integer made from the nextInt() method of the object we instanced. The perimeter 15 says that we want to cap the random number from 0 – 15. With that said, you don't need to know what any of this means right now. Lets not spoil the mystery.
You'll also see
'\n' is a command character. The computer interprets it as it would a letter, number, or symbol. What \n does is inserts a new line. Yes, we could've put a bunch of System.out.println()s in to the same effect, but this is cleaner. If, when you run the program, there is still not enough space for you, feel free to add more \n to make more space between the question and answer.
Using what we've covered:
You try it: Challenge Mode: Expand the BinaryMaker program to test yourself with 8 bits.
Next time, I'll post the answer. Feel free to ask questions about the challenge, the math, or anything else, really.
Next time: we'll continue working with binary.
submitted by Waitwhatwtf to theholisticprogrammer [link] [comments]

Need some beginner [C++] homework help. Is there a trick to using a variable in the seek g function?

Our assignment is to write a bank program that will read customer data in from a text file, store them in structures and convert to a binary file, and then make different transactions using the binary file.
The problem I am running in to right now is I am trying to calculate the offset to read data from the binary file starting where the customer's account number is. I am trying to just focus on the displayAccount function for right now. I added a line of code to display what the offset is that is being calculated in the function and it is not showing correctly. Our professor practically gave us the formula to use in the calcOffset function in class so I would have sworn it is correct. Basically the offset should be the last two digits of the user's account number * 4 for the number fields in their record. So the offset for for account 1010 should be 10 * 40 and would start on line 40 for that user. This is what the file looks like before they are put in order:
 20 1011 Karen L. Watkins 04/02/2016 321.34 1003 Jospeh Simmons 04/09/2016 4566.90 1010 Stephen J. Holmes 03/24/2016 1099.88 1005 Theresa Kennedy 04/01/2016 566.78 1002 Linda Williams 03/20/2016 78.99 1015 Heather Jacobs 02/19/2016 122.23 1009 Peter T. Thomas 04/05/2016 4900.78 1020 Arthur J. Olson 03/10/2016 1982.10 1008 Brenda Gibson 03/19/2016 766.32 1006 William S. Fieldstone 03/10/2016 290.41 1001 Carl Adams 04/01/2016 678.02 1019 Cynthia R. Tillman 02/19/2016 21.33 1007 Wesley Peters 01/11/2016 43.70 1004 Julie T. Simmons 04/10/2016 1455.10 1018 John T Piper 04/15/2016 1089.75 1012 Carole Adams 03/10/2016 5678.03 1017 Daniel R. Williams 01/08/2016 5.16 1016 Wendy Smith 01/09/2016 89.13 1013 Courtney Evans 02/22/2016 80.66 1014 Matt Billingsly 03/06/2016 433.21 
There is an extra number in the first line to hols the number of records, but that is irrelevant since it gets written in to a variable right away. When I try display what the offset it calculating, it is way off every time. Here is my code so far:
 #include "account.h" #include  #include  #include  #include  #include  using namespace std; //****************************************************************** //Function Prototypes void createBinary(); void menu(int largest_acct_num); void addAccount(fstream &file, int &largest_acct_num); void makeTransaction(); void displayAccount(fstream &file); void quit(); long calcOffset(int acct_num); const int SIZE = 25; //declare constant SIZE //****************************************************************** int main() { //call binary function createBinary(); } //****************************************************************** void createBinary() { int largest_acct_num = 0; //to hold largest account number //declare filestreams fstream outFile; fstream inFile; int num_accts; //to hold number of accounts //Declare temp place holder Account temp; //open file for writing in binary mode outFile.open("a10.bin", ios::out | ios:: binary); //open file for reading in inFile.open("acct_data2.txt", ios::in); if (!inFile) //flag if unable to open file { cout << "Error opening file"; } else { inFile >> num_accts; //load in number of accounts for (int i = 0; i < num_accts; i++) { //read structure in from file inFile >> temp.acct_num; inFile.ignore(); inFile.getline(temp.acct_holder, SIZE); inFile.getline(temp.trans_date, SIZE); inFile >> temp.acct_balance; inFile.ignore(); long offset = calcOffset(num_accts); //compute offset outFile.seekp(offset, ios::beg); //puts structure in to binary file starting //at the account number's position //write array to file, in binaary //array is not a pointer to a char, need to convert outFile.write(reinterpret_cast(&temp), sizeof(temp)); //update current largest account number if (temp.acct_num > largest_acct_num) largest_acct_num = temp.acct_num; } } outFile.close(); //close both file streams inFile.close(); //Call menu function and sent largest account number menu(largest_acct_num); } //****************************************************************** void menu(int largest_acct_num) { //Constants for menu choices const int ADD_ACCT = 1; const int MAKE_TRANS = 2; const int DISPLAY_ACCT = 3; const int QUIT = 4; //Declare and open new filestream for reading and writing fstream file; file.open("a10.bin", ios::in | ios::out | ios::binary); int choice; //to hold user's choice //Prompt user for choice do { cout << "Please choose an option" << endl; cout << " 1. Add a New Account" << endl; cout << " 2. Make a Transation" << endl; cout << " 3. Display Account Info" << endl; cout << " 4. Quit the Program" << endl; cin >> choice; cout << endl; //Validate the menu selection while(choice < ADD_ACCT || choice > QUIT) { cout << "Please enter a valid menu choice" << endl; cin >> choice; } if (choice != QUIT) { switch (choice) { //User chooses option 1 case ADD_ACCT: cout << "Add Account" << endl; addAccount(file, largest_acct_num); break; //User chooses option 2 case MAKE_TRANS: cout << "Make transaction" << endl; makeTransaction(); break; //User chooses option 3 case DISPLAY_ACCT: cout << "Display Account Balance" << endl; displayAccount(file); } } }while (choice != 4); //User chooses option 4 cout << "Goodbye!"; } //******************************************************************** void addAccount(fstream &file, int &largest_acct_num) { Account temp; //Declare temp Account Structure largest_acct_num = largest_acct_num + 1; //add one to largest account number temp.acct_num = largest_acct_num; //creat new account number cout << "Customer Name: "; //prompt for customer name cin.getline(temp.acct_holder, SIZE); //account holder name input cout << "\nDeposit Amount: "; //prompt for deposit amount cin >> temp.acct_balance; //user deposit input cout << "account number " << temp.acct_num << " created" << endl; //put data in to binary file starting from end of file file.seekp(0L, ios::end); file.read(reinterpret_cast(&temp), sizeof(temp)); } //******************************************************************** void makeTransaction() { } //******************************************************************** void displayAccount(fstream &file) { int acct_num; long offset; Account temp; cout << "Display account" << "\nPlease enter your account number: "; cin >> acct_num; offset = calcOffset(acct_num); cout << offset << endl << endl; //TEST file.seekg(offset, ios::end); file.read(reinterpret_cast(&temp), sizeof(temp)); cout << "Account Number: " << temp.acct_num << endl; cout << "Name: "< 
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Basics of knock-outs and binary options - September 10 ...

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